Indonesia merupakan salah satu negara berkembang yang hingga saat ini masih mempunyai permasalahan terkait pembangunan dan pertumbuhan ekonomi. Masih banyak ketimpangan pembangunan dan pertumbuhan ekonomi di sejumlah wilayah Indonesia. Oleh karena itu, pemerintah selalu berusaha menarik investor agar mau membangun bisnisnya di Indonesia dan meningkatkan investasi saham. Salah satu upaya untuk mendukung misi tersebut adalah dengan membuat kebijakan tax holiday.
A. Apa yang dimaksud dengan tax holiday?
Tax holiday merupakan salah satu fasilitas atau bentuk insentif perpajakan yang berlaku dan dapat dimanfaatkan oleh perusahaan-perusahaan yang baru didirikan untuk menarik investasi langsung dimana insentif tersebut dapat berupa pembebasan pajak penghasilan atau dapat berupa pengurangan pajak penghasilan badan. tarif pajak penghasilan bagi perusahaan yang melakukan penanaman modal baru ke dalam negeri pada jangka waktu tertentu. David Holland dan Richard J. Van dalam artikelnya yang berjudul Insentif Pajak Penghasilan untuk Investasi menyebutkan bahwa tax holiday termasuk dalam fasilitas pajak yang diberikan kepada perusahaan investor. Di Indonesia, munculnya tax holiday didasarkan pada pernyataan yang terdapat dalam Pasal 18 Undang-Undang Nomor 25 Tahun 2007 tentang Penanaman Modal.
B. Dasar hukum pemberian tax holiday
Berdasarkan Pasal 18 Undang-Undang Nomor 25 Tahun 2007 tentang Penanaman Modal, pemerintah memberikan kemudahan kepada investor dan perluasan usaha. Undang-Undang Penanaman Modal ini juga menjadi dasar pembentukan peraturan baru terkait fasilitas insentif teknis, yaitu melalui Peraturan Menteri Keuangan (PMK) Nomor 130/PMK.011/2011 tentang Pemberian Insentif atau Pengurangan Pajak Penghasilan Badan.
Kemudian PMK No.130/PMK.011/2011 mengalami beberapa kali perubahan hingga lahirnya peraturan terbaru yang diatur dalam PMK No.130/PMK.010/2020 tentang Pemberian Fasilitas Pengurangan Pajak Penghasilan Badan.
This latest tax holiday regulation has been in effect since October 9, 2020. In this regulation, the government adds criteria for taxpayers who are allowed to receive tax holiday facilities. The criterion is to have a commitment to carry out the investment plan no later than 1 (one) year after the decision to reduce Corporate Income Tax.
C. Tax holiday facilities provided
According to Article 31A of Law Number 36 of 2008 concerning Income Tax, the facilities provided, among others, a reduction in net income of at most 30% of the amount of investment made, accelerated depreciation and amortization, compensation for losses for a maximum of 10 years, and the imposition of Article 26 income tax on dividends of 10%, unless the rate set by P3B (Double Tax Avoidance) is lower.
Meanwhile, provisions related to tax holiday facilities for investors in certain business fields or certain regions have been further regulated in Government Regulation Number 18 of 2015. Then, taxpayers who have received tax holiday facilities are required to carry out their tax obligations by reporting tax holidays periodically to the Directorate General of Taxes (DGT).
D. Requirements that must be met by tax holiday taxpayers
According to Article 3 PMK No. 130/PMK.010/2020, there are several requirements that must be met by tax holiday taxpayers to get tax holiday facilities, including:
- The first requirement is that tax holiday taxpayers must be a Pioneer Industry that already has the status of an Indonesian Legal Entity;
- Second, taxpayers who are entitled to a tax holiday are taxpayers who invest new capital that has never been issued, such as decisions on granting rejection of corporate income tax reductions, granting income tax facilities for investment in certain business fields or certain regions as stipulated in Article 31A of the Income Tax Law, notifications regarding the provision of net income reductions for new investments or business expansion in accordance with Article 29A of Government Regulations regarding calculation of taxable income and expansion of income tax in the current year, and decisions on the provision of income tax in Special Economic Zones in accordance with Government Regulations on Facilities and Facilities in Special Economic Zones;
- Third, taxpayers have a new investment plan of at least IDR 100 billion;
- Fourth, taxpayers or investors must meet the provisions for the amount of debt and capital comparison as stipulated in PMK No.169/PMK.10/2015 concerning the comparison of the amount of debt and capital of companies for the purposes of calculating income tax; and
- Fifth, taxpayers or investors must have a commitment to implement their investment plan no later than one year after the issuance of the decision to reduce Corporate Income Tax.
E. Types of businesses that can get tax holiday facilities
The types of businesses that can get tax holiday facilities are pioneer industries engaged in:
- Base metal industry;
- Petroleum refining industry and/or organic basic chemicals sourced from petroleum;
- Machinery industry;
- Industry in the field of renewable resources; and
- Communication equipment industry.
F. Form of tax holiday facility
There are several forms of facilities obtained from tax holidays, including:
- The company will be exempt from corporate income tax for a minimum of 5 years and a maximum of 10 years from the start of commercial production.
- The Company will get a corporate income tax deduction of 50% of the Income Tax payable for 2 tax years starting after the end of the tax exemption facility.
G. The impact of providing tax holiday facilities
There are several impacts of providing tax holiday facilities, including:
- State revenue
The provision of this tax holiday facility can increase state income because the amount of capital invested by investors is quite large. However, the provision of this tax facility can reduce state revenue from the tax sector, precisely in corporate income tax. This policy can make companies take advantage of it by only investing in the tax holiday period and transferring it to another country when the policy period has ended.
Increasing the number of investors who build businesses in Indonesia can reduce unemployment which is a problem in Indonesia. The implementation of this tax holiday policy can increase employment and have an impact on employment.
TBrights is a tax consultant in Indonesia which currently is an integrated business service in Indonesia providing comprehensive tax and business services
Oleh Tommy HO – Mitra Pelaksana TBrights
- PMK No.130/PMK.010/2020 tentang Pemberian Fasilitas Pengurangan Pajak Penghasilan Badan
- Undang-Undang Nomor 36 Tahun 2008 tentang Pajak Penghasilan